April 29, 2016
And writing this article about it is a bold thing to do.
BUT it’s time to bust the myths surrounding fat… and that’s exactly what I’m going to do right now.
You are likely ruining your own health at the moment because you don’t fully understand fat… like countless others have.
Many have even died from this misunderstanding, which began more than half a century ago… when fat started being blamed for heart disease.
The whole thing stemmed from bad nutritional information that ultimately made its way all around the globe… and it was all based on a questionnaire filled out by 31 men in rural Crete.1,2
That’s it. Thirty-one men were asked about what they remembered eating the day before.
I wish that were a joke, but I’m serious.
And, as you’ll learn in a minute, that 31-person, all-male dietary questionnaire is the foundation upon which we’ve largely built 50+ years of diet recommendations.
And what do we have to show for it?
Well, obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in the U.S. are now hitting all-time highs.3,4,5,6
In other words, despite being increasingly diet-conscious, we keep getting fatter and sicker.
And this, by the way, applies to our children, too.7,8
So, it seems pretty obvious we’re doing something horribly wrong…
And I’m going to show you exactly what that is, and why we believed the flawed science behind it — which demonized eating fat — for so long.
I’m also going to get down and dirty about different types of fat: which ones are good, and which ones are bad.
I’m even going to tell you about fats you’d never expect to be good for you, such as certain healthy saturated fats… and yes, even one type of healthy trans fat.
So, pay attention… because we’re about to clear a few extremely important things up.
Let’s start with that questionnaire.
ONE SCIENTIST’S PRIDE = DISASTROUS CONSEQUENCES
In the early 1950s, scientists were becoming increasingly alarmed by what seemed to be an epidemic of heart disease in the United States.9
People everywhere were dropping dead younger and younger of heart attacks, and nobody knew why.10
And this escalating panic reached a fever pitch on September 24, 1955, when U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower suffered a heart attack while in office.11
On the momentum of the resulting panic, it wasn’t hard for an ambitious physiologist named Ancel Keys to secure funding for his own international heart study in 1956.12
You see, based on some passing observations he made while living in Europe several years earlier, Keys had formed a hypothesis that eating saturated fat caused heart disease…13,14
…a hypothesis which was coldly dismissed when he presented it before the World Health Organization’s panel on atherosclerosis in 1955.15
After this blowoff, Keys — a famously headstrong man16,17 — was determined to prove himself right.18
So, he built up publicity for himself by confidently announcing in twenty different papers that dietary fat intake was connected to blood cholesterol levels and heart disease, despite questionable evidence…19
…and he had all of these papers published in leading scientific journals from 1957 to 1958.20
Riding the wave of this self-generated publicity combined with the heart attack scare, Keys commenced his international study — now known as the Seven Countries Study — in 1958.21,22
And from the moment this study began, dark things were on the horizon.
There were 3 HUGE Problems with Keys’ “Seven Country” Science…
We’ll start with the countries themselves…
1) Seven was not a lucky number.
Let’s pause on the name of that study for just a second:
“The Seven Countries Study.”
Nutrition data were available for 22 countries at that time…23,24 So, why would Keys only report on seven of them?
Well, many of Keys’ contemporaries believe he deliberately picked the countries that supported his theories about fat and left out the ones that didn’t. This is known in the scientific community as “cherry-picking.” 25,26,27
This might explain why he left out France, which had low rates of heart disease despite a high-saturated-fat diet — a phenomenon that later became known as the “French Paradox.” 28
2) Correlation is not causation.
And then, there is the matter of Keys’ data itself. You see, aside from cherry-picking his data, Keys did two other major things wrong…
First, he only pointed out correlations. Correlation means two things simply coincide. It doesn’t mean one caused the other.
For example, everyone who eats apples also eventually dies. There is a 100% correlation between eating apples and death. That doesn’t mean eating apples causes death.
Similarly, when Keys points out that people had long life and low rates of heart attacks in Crete and they also didn’t eat much saturated fat…29 that doesn’t mean they had low heart disease because they didn’t eat much saturated fat.
If he hadn’t cherry-picked his data, this might have been more obvious within the study.
There was another thing wrong with the data from Crete, though…
And that thing was data itself.
3) The case of the missing data.
You see, of the 300 men originally medically examined for the Crete section of the study, only 31 were actually surveyed about their diets.30
And the original surveys about what those men remembered eating over the previous seven days were unavailable for the study… So, Keys substituted in data from a previous questionnaire.31
There was also a lack of data on fruit and vegetable consumption for those 31 men. So, Keys used data on the availability of fruits and vegetables in Greece over the previous 4 years to guess what these men had eaten.32
So, in summary, Keys…
And then he suggested that the resulting imaginary diet — later called the “Mediterranean Diet” 33,34 — was the reason for the long lives and low levels of heart disease observed in these men.35
Oh… and by the way… amidst the publicity of conducting this “groundbreaking study,” Keys landed on the cover of TIME Magazine in 1961.36,37
AND he got a book deal and hit the New York Times Bestsellers list:38,39,40,41
So, naturally, Keys was under a white-hot spotlight, and any conclusions he drew were going to be publicized everywhere.
And when he concluded that the low-saturated-fat “Mediterranean Diet” was ideal for heart health, people everywhere began adopting it.
But wait… It gets worse.
You see, even Keys was mindful enough to point the finger at a specific type of fat (saturated). However, when a few scientists came out later thinking that fat might be a cancer cause…42
…all fat started being slammed as unhealthy.
With the low-fat craze now at full force, people were left largely with carbs as their alternative major calorie source.
And by the way… the grain industry, in particular, didn’t mind any of this one bit.
You see, they’d already applied pressure to the USDA to make grains the largest recommended food group at the bottom of the Food Guide Pyramid, which the government was designing at the time to teach the public how to eat:43
And when the Food Guide Pyramid came out in 1992, right in the middle of the low-fat craze, everything lined up perfectly. People were left to wolf down the carbs for the next 20+ years.
And that brings us back up to the present: fatter and sicker than ever.
But what about the heart disease epidemic?
If fat wasn’t the cause, what was?
Well, here’s where it gets interesting…
Early in the 20th century leading up to the 1950s heart disease crisis, three key things happened:
The issue with sugar is particularly interesting…
You see, as far back as the 1950s, well-known scientists had contradicted Keys’ fat-heart disease hypothesis… by pointing the finger at sugar instead.
One particularly notable proponent of the sugar theory was respected British physiologist and researcher Dr. John Yudkin.49,50,51
As early as 1957, when Keys was still preparing for the Seven Countries Study, Yudkin published a study analyzing 41 countries (not 7!) and correlating heart disease to sugar, not fat.52
He published another study in 1964 furthering this theory,53 and in 1972, he released a book thoroughly exploring the dangers of sugar called Pure White and Deadly: The Problem of Sugar. In this book, Yudkin backed his sugar hypothesis up with a substantial amount of research.54
And Yudkin was not alone in his sugar suspicions. Nobel Prize®55 winner Dr. Linus Pauling publicly agreed with Yudkin about sugar shortly after Pure White and Deadly was released.56
And more recently, University of California San Francisco endocrinologist Dr. Robert Lustig gave a famous sugar lecture citing Yudkin that was posted online and went viral.57,58,59
Unfortunately, Keys and several other powerful figures who were invested in the low-fat trend retaliated against Yudkin in a shockingly brutal way…60
And that’s a story I’ll get to in the next Food Truth Letter post… coming out soon. Right now, we need to get back to the fat!
Sign up for the email list in the form at the upper right of this page or at the bottom after the citations, and I’ll shoot you an email when the next letter comes out.
Now you know the lies… so let’s get to the truth about fat.
To quote the esteemed Dr. Walter Willett, Chair of the Harvard School of Public health…
“Diets high in fat do not appear to to be the primary cause of the high prevalence of excess body fat in our society, and reductions in fat will not be a solution.”
– Dr. Walter Willett, December 2002 61
What that means is this: Fat in your food does not equal fat on your body.
Fat in your food equals fuel in your body.
So, here’s the real question: Which fats are good, and which fats are bad?
Glad you asked. Let’s start with the “infamous” saturated fat.
1) The Truth About SATURATED FAT
Now, there are some saturated fat sources you should honestly avoid for better health.
These mainly include fats from grain-fed, unhealthy, factory-farmed animals. Milk, meat, eggs, and fish are all problematic for your health when it comes to factory-farmed sources.62,63
This is due to the grain feed, harsh and dirty conditions, antibiotics and hormones, and diseases the animals are exposed to. These conditions also affect their omega-3 balance…64,65 which I’ll get to in a minute.
Now… if you get your saturated fats from good sources, such as grass-fed meat and dairy and cold-pressed coconut oil, they do some very important things in your body.
What Good Saturated Fats Do for You:
The list goes on and on. In other words, saturated fats are crucial to your health, and cutting them out is a big mistake.
Again, though, the health benefits of saturated fat — or any other fat — are greatly affected by what you are consuming to get the fats… which is why I’m providing very specific examples.
Now, let’s move on to another type of fat: monounsaturated fat.
2) What You Should Know about MONOUNSATURATED FAT
This fat is found in avocados, nuts, seeds, olives, olive oil (use extra virgin, cold-pressed), and lard and tallow (grass-fed, pasture-raised).
It’s widely (and rightfully) accepted as extremely beneficial to the body,77 promoting weight loss, cardiovascular health, healthy cholesterol levels, lower diabetes risk, and lower breast cancer risk.78,79
There is, however, one monounsaturated fat source you should avoid: canola oil.
Despite historically being marketed as healthy, canola oil is riddled with chemical additives like bleach, deodorizers, and degummers. Not to mention, it’s processed at extreme temperatures that essentially ruin any nutritional value it might have had.80
So, skip the canola and spring for the coconut! (Or any of the natural sources I mentioned above.)
Now, we’ve arrived at polyunsaturated fat.
3) What You Should Know about POLYUNSATURATED FAT
You may have heard of the two main polyunsaturated fats: omega-3 and omega-6.
They are both crucial in your diet because your body can’t function without them and yet it doesn’t produce either one of them on its own.81
Omega-3 fats are essential to nervous system function and endocrine function (particularly your body’s ability to regulate insulin). In fact, the very structure of the cells you’re made of depends on omega-3! 82
Omega-6 fats are crucial to cellular function, but without the proper balance of omega-3, they can start doing some terrible things inside you right away.83
Weight gain that you can’t stop, immune system malfunction, rampant inflammation, heart disease, and cancer are just a few of the things a poor omega-3 to omega-6 balance can easily churn up inside your body.84
The ideal omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is between 1:1 and 4:1.85,86
Good polyunsaturated fat sources that help you achieve a proper balance of omega-3 to omega-6 include wild-caught cold-water fish, pasture-raised meat and eggs, whole nuts and seeds, flax seed oil, and hemp seed oil.87,88
Fat sources with poor omega balances you should avoid are refined oils, such as soybean oil, cottonseed oil, vegetable oil, and corn oil.89
Also, polyunsaturated fats do NOT perform well as cooking oils.90,91 For cooking, use lard, tallow, avocado oil, olive oil, or coconut oil (olive oil and coconut oil at medium heat or lower).
Alright… we’ve now reached the big, bad wolf of fats. This one has been demonized, as it very well should. It’s one of the worst things you can consume.
I’m talking about trans fat.
4) The Truth about TRANS FAT
Keep in mind, there is one good trans fat, which I’ll get to in a moment. First, though, let’s deal with the bad stuff.
Trans fats are the hallmark of hydrogenated oils. Hydrogenation is the industrial process used to make vegetable oils more solid and stable for shipping, resulting in products like Crisco®92 and margarine.
Study after study after study has shown the extreme dangers of trans fats.
In addition to very easily making you fat, trans fat has been linked by a MOUNTAIN of evidence to not only obesity… but deaths from heart disease, colon cancer, breast cancer, and diabetes.93,94,95,96,97,98,99,100,101,102
So, you definitely want to keep this stuff out of your body.
Some common sources of trans fat include…
And beware: Even though the government is cracking down on trans fat, manufacturers are definitely still finding loopholes to sneak it into your food without having to label it.103
Now, all that being said… there’s one trans fat that’s actually healthy, and it’s called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).
CLA, because of its molecular makeup, is technically a trans fat… but it isn’t produced in a factory via hydrogenation. CLA occurs naturally in grass-fed butter and beef. (Notice a recurring food theme here?)
CLA has been shown to aid in weight loss, not to mention protect you against the development of cancer, heart disease, and diabetes.104,105,106
Take a breath.
You now know the truth about fat.
Fat isn’t evil, and cutting it out of your diet is just about the worst thing you can do for weight loss or your health.
The real problem here is sugar, and it goes far beyond what you’ve likely ever imagined… and that’s exactly what I’m going to cover in the next letter.
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AND ONE MORE THING:
I’m very serious about everything I do with Nucific, including articles like this.
After all, the Internet is clogged with unreliable and even dangerous health “information” that has no research to back it up.
And that’s why I’m so meticulous about giving you the straight goods on any topic I cover. It’s also why I cite sources so thoroughly.
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It’s my mission to get real, reliable information out to you and to as many other people as possible. And I’ll always back this information up with ample sources.
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Dr. Amy Lee, MD
Nucific Board of Directors
1 Kromhout D, Keys A, Aravanis C, et. al. Food consumption patterns in the 1960s in seven countries. Am J Clin Nutr. May 1989; 49 (5): 889-894.
2 Hyman, Mark. Eat Fat, Get Thin. New York, NY. Little, Brown, and Company; 2016: 29.
3 Winters D. U.S. Obesity Rate Climbs to Record High in 2015. Gallup Website. http://www.gallup.com/poll/189182/obesity-rate-climbs-record-high-2015.aspx?utm_source=alert&utm_medium=email&utm_content=morelink&utm_campaign=syndication. Published February 12, 2016. Accessed April 23, 2016.
4 Menke A, Casagrande S, Geiss L, Cowie CC. Prevalence of and Trends in Diabetes Among Adults in the United States, 1988-2012. JAMA. Sep 8, 2015; 314 (10): 1021-1029. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2015.10029.
5 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report: Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2014.
6 Hyman at 4.
7 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. Feb 26, 2014; 311(8): 806-814. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2014.732.
8 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2011: With Special Features on Socioeconomic Status and Health. Hyattsville, MD; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.
9 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH). Conquering Cardiovascular Disease. NHLBI Website. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/news/spotlight/success/conquering-cardiovascular-disease. Accessed April 23, 2016.
10 Id. at 1.
11 Ambrose S. Eisenhower (Vol. 2): The President (1952–1969). New York, NY. Simon & Schuster; 1984: 272.
12 Taubes G. Good Calories, Bad Calories: Fats, Carbs, and the Controversial Science of Diet and Health. New York, NY. Anchor Books; 2007: p. 31.
13 Blackburn H. Famous Polemics on Diet-Heart Theory. University of Minnesota School of Public Health Website. http://www.epi.umn.edu/cvdepi/essay/famous-polemics-on-diet-heart-theory/. Accessed April 22, 2016.
14 History: Prelude to the Seven Countries Study. Seven Countries Study Website. http://www.sevencountriesstudy.com/about-the-study/history/. Accessed April 22, 2016.
15 Ibid. at 1.
16 Leslie I. The Sugar Conspiracy. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/apr/07/the-sugar-conspiracy-robert-lustig-john-yudkin. Published April 7, 2016. Accessed April 22, 2016.
17 Teicholz N. The Big Fat Surprise. New York, NY. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks; 2014.
18 Blackburn at 1.
19 Ibid. at 31.
20 Ibid. at 31.
21 Keys A. Seven Countries: A Multivariate Analysis of Death and Coronary Heart Disease. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press; 1980.
22 History at 1.
23 Yerushalmy J, Hilleboe HE. Fat in the diet and mortality from heart disease; a methodologic note. N Y State J Med. Jul 15, 1957; 57 (14): 2343-54.
24 Lustig R. Fat Chance: Beating the Odds Against Sugar, Processed Food, Obesity, and Disease. New York, NY. Plume (Penguin); 2012: 110-111
25 Lustig at 110-111.
26 Yerushalmy at 2343-54.
27 Leslie at 1.
28 Ferrieres J. The French Paradox; Lessons for Other Countries. Heart. Jan 2004; 90 (1): 107–111. doi:10.1136/heart.90.1.107
29 Kromhout D, Keys A, Aravanis C, et. al. Food consumption patterns in the 1960s in seven countries. Am J Clin Nutr. May 1989; 49 (5): 889-894.
30 Ibid. at 889-894.
31 Id. at 889-894.
32 Id. at 889-894.
33 Keys A, Keys M. How to Eat Well and Stay Well the Mediterranean Way. New York, NY. Doubleday; 1975.
34 Diekmann C, Sotiropoulos S. The Everything Mediterranean Diet Cookbook. Avon, MA. Adams Media; 2010.
35 Id. at 889-894.
36 Safran, B. Physiologist Ancel Keys (Cover Picture). TIME. Jan 13, 1961; 77 (3): Front Cover.
37 TIME Magazine is a registered trademark of Time, Inc. All rights reserved.
38 Keys A, Keys M. Eat Well and Stay Well. New York, NY. Doubleday; 1959.
39 Keys (1975).
40 Brody J. Dr. Ancel Keys, 100, Promoter of Mediterranean Diet, Dies. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/23/obituaries/dr-ancel-keys-100-promoter-of-mediterranean-diet-dies.html. Published Nov 23, 2004. Accessed Apr 23, 2016.
41 Ciezadlo A. Does the Mediterranean Diet Even Exist? The New York Times. Apr 13, 2011: MM21.
42 Prentice RL, Sheppard L. Dietary fat and cancer: consistency of the epidemiologic data, and disease prevention that may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption. Cancer Causes Control. Jul 1990; 1 (1): 81-97; discussion 99-109.
43 Light L. A Fatally Flawed Food Guide. WHALE Website. http://www.whale.to/a/light.html. Published 2004. Accessed April 21, 2016.
44 Crisco® is a registered trademark of Procter and Gamble Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
45 Our History: Crisco is Introduced. Procter and Gamble Website. http://www.crisco.com/about_crisco/history.aspx. Accessed April 23, 2016.
46 De Souza RJ, Mente A, Maroleanu A, et. al. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ. Aug 11, 2015; 351: h3978. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.h3978.
47 Taubes (2007) at 7.
48 Schneider D, Lilienfeld DE. Public Health, The Development of a Discipline Vol. II: 20th Century Challenges. New Brunswick, NJ. Rutgers University Press; 2011: 43.
49 Yudkin J. Diet and Coronary Thrombosis: Hypothesis and Fact. Lancet. Jul 27, 1957; 273 (6987): 155-62. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(57)90614-1.
50 Yudkin J. Patterns and Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption and Their Relation to Disease. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Sep 1964; 23 (2): 149-162. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS19640028.
51 Yudkin J. Pure White and Deadly: The Problem of Sugar. New York, NY. HarperCollins Distribution Services; 1972.
52 Id. at 163-164.
53 Yudkin (1964).
54 Yudkin (1972).
55 Nobel Prize® is a registered trademark of the Nobel Foundation. All rights reserved.
56 Pauling L. Sugar: ‘Sweet and Dangerous’. Executive Health. 1972; 9 (1): 1-4.
57 Lustig R. Sugar: The Bitter Truth [Video]. UCTV YouTube Channel. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnniua6-oM. Published July 30, 2009. Accessed April 23, 2016.
58 Taubes G. Is Sugar Toxic? The New York Times. April 17, 2011: MM47.
59 Leslie at 1.
60 Id. at 1.
61 Willett WC, Leibel RL. Dietary fat is not a major determinant of body fat. Am J Med. Dec 30, 2002; 113 (9B): 47S-59S. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(01)00992-5.
62 Geary M, Ebeling C. The Fat-Burning Kitchen. Carson City, Nevada. Irollie Marketing; 2009.
63 Hyman at 140-142.
64 Ibid. at 55-68.
65 Hyman at 140-142.
66 Id. at 75.
67 Rioux V, Legrand P. Saturated fatty acids: simple molecular structures with complex cellular functions. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. Nov 2007; 10 (6): 752-758. http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=18089958.ui. Accessed April 23, 2016.
68 Hyman at 75.
69 European Food Information Council. Taking a closer look at saturated fat. http://www.eufic.org/article/en/artid/Saturated-fat-upclose/. Published March 2009. Accessed April 23, 2016.
70 Fallon S. Know Your Fats Introduction. Weston A. Price Foundation Website. http://www.westonaprice.org/know-your-fats/know-your-fats-introduction/. Published February 24, 2009. Accessed April 16, 2016.
71 Lawrence GD. Dietary Fats and Health: Dietary Recommendations in the Context of Scientific Evidence. Adv Nutr. May 1, 2013; 4 (3): 294-302. DOI: 10.3945/an.113.003657.
72 Rioux at 752-758.
73 Hyman at 75, citing: Hämäläinen E, Adlercreutz H, Puska P, Pietinen P. Diet and serum sex hormones in healthy men. J Steroid Biochem. Jan 1984; 20 (1): 459-64.
74 Hyman at 76.
75 Wijga AH, Smit HA, Kerkhof M, et. al.Association of consumption of products containing milk fat with reduced asthma risk in pre-school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study. Thorax. Jul 2003; 58 (7): 567-72. DOI:10.1136/thorax.58.7.567.
76 Ibid. at 76.
77 Id. at 76.
78 Body Ecology. The 6 Benefits of Monounsaturated Fats (MUFAs). Body Ecology Website. http://bodyecology.com/articles/6_benefits_monosaturated_fats.php Accessed April 22, 2016.
79 American Heart Association. Monounsaturated Fats. American Heart Association Website. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/HealthyEating/Nutrition/Monounsaturated-Fats_UCM_301460_Article.jsp#.VyEKpmOyVFI Updated Oct 7, 2015. Accessed April 22, 2016.
80 Fallon S, Enid MG. The Great Con-ola. Weston A. Price Foundation Website. http://www.westonaprice.org/know-your-fats/the-great-con-ola/. Published July 28, 2002. Accessed April 23, 2016.
81 Hyman at 77.
82 Id. at 77.
83 Id. at 79.
84 Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. Oct 2002; 56 (8): 365-79. DOI: 10.1016/S0753-3322(02)00253-6.
85 Hyman at 79.
86 Ibid. at 365-379.
87 Hyman at 78.
88 Geary at 55-68.
89 Hyman at 80.
90 Hyman at 78-80.
91 Good J. Healthiest Cooking Oil Comparison Chart with Smoke Points and Omega 3 Fatty Acid Ratios. Baseline Health Foundation Website. http://jonbarron.org/diet-and-nutrition/healthiest-cooking-oil-chart-smoke-points#.VyEfjmOyVSU Published April 17, 2012. Accessed April 23, 2016.
92 Crisco® is a registered trademark of Procter and Gamble Co., Inc. All rights reserved.
93 See for example: Mozaffarian D, Aro A, Willett WC. Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr. May 2009; 63 Suppl 2: S5-21. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602973.
94 See for example: Krauss RM. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype and diet-gene interactions. J Nutr. Feb 2001; 131 (2): 340S-3S. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/2/340S.long. Accessed April 22, 2016.
95 See for example: Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et. al. Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet. Mar 6, 1993; 341 (8845): 581-585.
96 See for example: Parks EJ, Parks EJ. Changes in fat synthesis influenced by dietary macronutrient content. Proc Nutr Soc. May 2002; 61 (2): 281-286. DOI: 10.1079/PNS2002148.
97 See for example: Prado KB, Shugg S, Backstrand JR. Low-density lipoprotein particle number predicts coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic adults at intermediate risk of cardiovascular disease. J Clin Lipidol. Sep-Oct 2011; 5 (5): 408-413. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacl.2011.07.001.
98 See for example: Schwarz JM, Noworolski SM, Wen MJ, et. al. Effect of a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining Diet on Lipogenesis and Liver Fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jun 2015; 100 (6): 2434-2442. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-3678.
99 See for example: Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. May 2003; 77 (5): 1146-55. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/77/5/1146.full Accessed April 23, 2016.
100 See for example: Hudgins LC, Hellerstein MK, Seidman CE, Neese RA, Tremaroli JD, Hirsch J. Relationship between carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia and fatty acid synthesis in lean and obese subjects. J Lipid Res. Apr 2000; 41 (4): 595-604. http://www.jlr.org/content/41/4/595.long. Accessed April 22, 2016.
101 See for example: Ascherio A, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Master C, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Trans-fatty acids intake and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation. Jan 1994; 89 (1): 94-101. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.89.1.94.
102 See for example: Katan MB1, Zock PL, Mensink RP. Trans fatty acids and their effects on lipoproteins in humans. Annu Rev Nutr. Jul 1995; 15: 473-493. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nu.15.070195.002353.
103 Hyman at 84-85.
104 Ochoa JJ, Farquharson AJ, Grant I, Moffat LE, Heys SD, Wahle KW. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) decrease prostate cancer cell proliferation: different molecular mechanisms for cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers. Carcinogenesis. Jul 2004; 25 (7): 1185-1191. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgh116.
105 Nakamura YK, Flintoff-Dye N, Omaye ST. Conjugated linoleic acid modulation of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis. Nutr Metab (Lond). Aug 21, 2008; 5: 22. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-5-22.
106 Castro-Webb N, Ruiz-Narváez EA, Campos H. Cross-sectional study of conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. Jul 2012; 96 (1): 175-81. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.011858.